Astronomers carefully analyzed the data obtained using the American TESS telescope, on the basis of which they discovered a new transit hot jupiter, which revolves around a red dwarf. It is noteworthy that today scientists know only about four objects of this type, located in a family of small weakly heating luminaries.
“Over the past 30 years of research, scientists have managed to find about three thousand star systems. About 400 exoplanets of the class of hot Jupiters are counted in these worlds, and only five of this number, taking into account the latest discovery, revolve around red dwarfs, ”said the participants of a scientific study about which the article was published in the pages of the famous Astronomical Journal.
Hot Jupiters are called exoplanets, whose mass is approximately equal to the gas giant of our solar system, and the distance from the parent star is only 0.05 astronomical units (about 7.5 million kilometers), which is several times smaller than the distance from Mercury to the Sun 57.9 million kilometers). On such planets, the duration of a year will never exceed just a few days, and often amounts to even a few hours. The surface will be heated to unprecedented temperatures, and in such conditions no creature can live.
Specialists in space science recognize that hot Jupiters are a big mystery for them, because the process of their formation is still unknown. These planets are very close to the stars, where such large celestial bodies, in principle, cannot be formed due to the insufficient amount of the necessary material. Based on this, several versions emerged, the most popular of which is: hot Jupiters were originally born at a sufficiently large distance from the stars, but with time they moved closer.
Expansion of the sample of qualitatively characterized hot Jupiter is one of the main tasks in the study of exoplanets. So astronomers will be able to understand whether the mass of the parent luminaries depends on the frequency of formation of such objects. It will be possible to establish whether they have always been hot or have become so only with time.
The planet found was called HATS-71b, and it revolves around a red dwarf that is 456 light-years away and is twice as big as the Sun. The year of this hot Jupiter passes in 3.79 Earth days, its mass is less than that of Jupiter twice, but the sizes of the objects are almost equal. Heats a red dwarf 40% weaker than the Sun, but due to the small distance the surface of the HATS-71b still heats up to 300 degrees Celsius.
Engaged in exploring the neighborhoods of HATS-71b and another powerful space telescope – Gaia, launched by ESA in 2013. The data collected by the device led researchers to the idea that the red dwarf HATS-71 may have a fellow in the face of a star whose mass is 4 times less than solar. Nevertheless, confirmation of this has not yet been possible, but experts are working hard in this direction. The presence of a neighbor, as the scientists note, of course, will ultimately affect the estimated radius and mass of HATS-71b, but these figures will be insignificant.
“The detection of HATS-71b clearly shows that such exoplanets can be born and move even in systems of stars with so small masses as in HATS-71,” experts concluded.
. (tagsToTranslate) Red Dwarf (t) Hot Jupiter (t) Telescope TESS (t) HATS-71b